is the study of the Earth, the materials of which it is made, the structure of those materials, and the processes acting upon them. It includes the study of organisms that have inhabited our planet. An important part of geology is the study of how Earth's materials, structures, processes and organisms have changed over time. Geologists work to understand the history of our planet. The better they can understand Earth’s history, the better they can foresee how events and processes of the past might influence the future.
is the study of the Earth's atmosphere. Scientists who study the atmosphere are called meteorologists. By studying the Earth's atmosphere, meteorologists are able to predict what the weather will be. However, there are a lot of variables that goes into predicting the weather. For this reason, the predictions are not 100% accurate.
Meteorologists measure and study many aspects of the Earth's atmosphere.
is the study of the physical, chemical, and biological features of the ocean, including the ocean’s ancient history, its current condition, and its future. In a time when the ocean is threatened by climate change and pollution, coastlines are eroding, and entire species of marine life are at risk of extinction, the role of oceanographers may be more important now than it has ever been.
is the study of the universe. Here are some examples of why studying space beyond Earth is important: the moon drives the ocean's tidal system, asteroid impacts have repeatedly devastated Earth's inhabitants and energy from the sun drives our weather and climates. A knowledge of astronomy is essential to understanding the Earth. Astronomers can also use a knowledge of Earth materials, processes and history to understand other planets - even those outside of our own solar system.